Sunday, October 9, 2011

Ibarrexte-Antuñano: "Metaphorical Mappings in the Sense of Smell" (1999)

This paper by Iraide Ibarretxe-Antuñano is a relatively minor follow-up on Eve Seetser's book.

Ibarretxe-Antuñano suggests that the metaphorical meanings of smell and sniff are constructed through a "property selection process" (pp. 38-41).

It's not entirely clear to me what she means. The article doesn't seem to explain where the selection criteria come from, whether the model is analytical or psychological, or how it would work in general.

Readings: On Traps and Gaps
In any event, the paper is useful because it contains a list of past attempts (as of 1999) to solve the over- and undergeneration problems in conceptual metaphor theory (p. 40).

These attempts have employed the following theoretical ideas:
  • Salience imbalance (Ortony 1979): The vehicle and topic must share a feature; that feature must be salient in the vehicle, but not in the topic
  • Domains-interaction (Tourangeau and Sternberg 1981, 1982): Metaphor aptness is a function of (a) the similarity between the terms within domains and (b) the disssimilarity of the domains
  • Structure-mapping (Gentner 1983, Gentner and Clement 1988): Analogies work best when they (a) transfer a lot of object relations, i.e., structure, and (b) only transfer few object attributes
  • Class inclusion (Glucksberg and Keysar 1990): Metaphors are simply class-inclusion statements, just like a tree is a plant; the underlying reading process exactly the same
If we include the other obvious sources on the topic, the list can be expanded with the following texts:
  • Compound metaphors (Grady 1997, 1998, 2002): One metaphor can act as a relevance filter on another and thus remove unwanted entailments
  • Process selection processes (Ibarretxe-Antuñano 1999): As word meanings are extended, certain properties (like "physical" or "volitional") are somehow dropped
  • The Invariance principle (Lakoff 1993, 2008): Inferences are carried over from the source domain if and only if they are consistent with the target domain (i.e., they are carried over if and only if they are carried over)

No comments :

Post a Comment